ANTONESCU, ION°


ANTONESCU, ION°
ANTONESCU, ION° (1882–1946), Romanian soldier and politician. Following a dispute with King Carol II in 1934, Antonescu resigned his post as chief of staff. When Goga and cuza formed an antisemitic government late in 1937, Antonescu, an antisemite, was appointed minister of defense, and the Germans established contact with him. On September 4, 1940 he became prime minister, with dictatorial powers. Two days later Antonescu forced King Carol II to abdicate, formed a government together with the iron guard , and called himself conducator ("leader") of Romania. Antonescu disapproved of the violent methods of the Iron Guard, fearing that they would lead to Romania's economic ruin. On January 21 and 22, 1941, the Iron Guard made its revolt against Antonescu the occasion for a pogrom. Hitler took Antonescu's part, since he needed the Romanian army for his planned invasion of Russia. After Romania entered the war against Russia on June 22, 1941, the Germans and Romanians conquered Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, and massacred the Jewish population. Antonescu ordered the Odessa massacre (November 23, 1941), which cost between 25,000 and 30,000 Jewish lives. In the autumn of 1942, the Jewish leadership in Bucharest enlisted the aid of local politicians, neutral diplomats, and the papal nuncio, who applied pressure on Antonescu, and succeeded in preventing the deportation of the entire Jewish population of Romania to concentration camps. After the German defeat at Stalingrad, Antonescu became increasingly lenient toward the Jews. Late in 1943, negotiations began between Jewish leaders and Antonescu's government for the return of those Jews deported to transnistria and for their emigration to Palestine. At the same time, Antonescu began negotiating for a separate peace. The Transnistria deportees began to return only in the spring of 1944, when the Russians reconquered the area. Antonescu was sentenced to death by a Bucharest People's Court and executed on June 6, 1946. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Hillgruber, Hitler, Koenig Carol und Marschall Antonescu (1954); M. Carp, Cartea Neagrā, 3 vols. (1946–48), index; Gutachten des Instituts fuer Zeitgeschichte, 1 (1958), 102–83; T. Lavi, Yahadut Romanyah be-Ma'avak al Haẓẓalatah (1965), passim. (Theodor Lavi)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Antonescu, Ion — born June 15, 1882, Piteşti, Rom. died June 1, 1946, near Jilava Romanian general. He rose in the Romanian army to the rank of general and chief of staff (1934) and later became minister of defense (1937–38). Appointed prime minister in 1940, he… …   Universalium

  • Antonescu, Ion — ► (1882 1946) Político y militar rumano. Exigió la abdicación del rey Carol, se hizo nombrar Conducator, organizó el país a la manera fascista y se adhirió al Pacto tripartito. * * * (15 jun. 1882, Pitesti, Rumania–1 jun. 1946, cerca de Jilava).… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Antonescu — Antonescu, Ion …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ion Antonescu — Mandats Chef de l État Roumain 5  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ion Antonescu — Ion Victor Antonescu Ion Antonescu Primer Ministro de Rumanía …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ion Antonescu — Antonescu redirects here. For other persons with that surname, see Antonescu (surname). Infobox Prime Minister name =Ion Victor Antonescu nationality =Romanian small imagesize = 180px caption = Ion Antonescu, minutes before his execution order =… …   Wikipedia

  • Ion Antonescu — Ion Victor Antonescu (* 15. Juni 1882 in Pitești; † 1. Juni 1946 in Jilava) war ein rumänischer General und Diktator. Von September 1940 bis August 1944 war er unter der Bezeichnung „Staatsführer“ (rumänisch: „Conducătorul statului“)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • ANTONESCU, MIHAI° — (1907–1946), Romanian lawyer and politician. In 1940 Antonescu, as minister of justice, formulated several anti Jewish laws. He was the legal representative of ion antonescu (to whom he was unrelated). Upon the outbreak of war with the Soviet… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ANTONESCU (I.) — ANTONESCU ION (1882 1946) Officier et homme politique roumain, Ion Antonescu est né à Pitesti en Transylvanie, qui appartenait alors au royaume de Hongrie. Il participe aux combats de la Première Guerre mondiale comme officier dans l’armée… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Ion (name) — Ion was an also an ancient Greek given name, see Ion (mythology) and Ion of Chios. Ion is a common Romanian given name for males. It is equivalent to the English name John and has the same etymology as John , tracing back to a Hebrew name.Another …   Wikipedia


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